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CNC tool knowledge

Update:29 Jan 2018
Summary:

CNC tool by the workpiece surface in the form of proces […]

CNC tool by the workpiece surface in the form of processing can be divided into five categories. Machining a variety of outer surface of the tool, including turning, planing, milling cutter, the outer surface of the broach and file, etc .; hole processing tools, including drill bits, reamers, boring tools, reamers and inner surface broach, etc .; thread processing Tools, including tap, die, automatic opening and closing thread cutting head, thread turning and thread milling cutter, etc .; gear cutting tools, including hob, gear shaper, shaving cutter, bevel gear cutting tools; cutting tools, including inserts Circular saw blades, band saws, bow saws, cut-off tools and saw blades, and so on. In addition there is a combination of tools.

Carbide knives

By cutting movement and the corresponding blade shape, the tool can be divided into three categories. Universal tools such as turning tools, planing tools, milling cutters (not including formed turning tools, forming planers and forming mills), boring tools, drills, reamers, reamers and saws; forming tools, It has the same or nearly the same shape as that of the machined workpiece, such as forming lathe, forming planing cutter, forming cutter, broach, conic reamer and various thread processing tools; Tooth surfaces or similar workpieces, such as hobs, gear shapers, shaving knives, bevel gear planing knives and bevel gear milling discs.

The structure of various tools by the clamping part and the working part. The overall structure of the clamping part of the tool and the working part are done on the body of the knife; Indentation structure of the working part of the tool (knife or blade) is mounted on the body.

Tool clamping part with holes and handle two categories. The hole cutter relies on the inner hole to be set on the spindle or mandrel of the machine tool. The torque is transmitted through the axial key or the end key, such as the cylindrical cutter and sleeve mill.

Tools with a handle usually rectangular handle, cylindrical handle and taper handle three. Turning tools, shaving knives and other general rectangular handle; taper shank taper bearing axial thrust and friction torque transmission torque; cylindrical shank generally applicable to smaller twist drills, end mills and other tools, when cutting with the clamping The generated friction transmits the torque. Many handle shank tool made of low alloy steel, while the working part of the high-speed steel with two parts butt welded together.

The working part of the tool is the part that generates and processes the chips, including the cutting edge, the structure that breaks or pulls the chips, the space for chips or chips, and the cutting fluid channel. Some tools work part is cutting parts, such as turning tools, planing knives, boring tools and milling cutter, etc .; some of the working part of the tool includes the cutting part and the calibration part, such as drill, reamer, reamer, the inner surface of the pull Knife and tap and so on. Cutting part of the role is to use cutting edge cutting chip, the role of the calibration part is to trim the machined surface and guide the tool.

The working part of the structure of the tool is a whole, welding and mechanical clamping three. The overall structure is made in the cutter body cutting edge; welding structure is the blade brazed to the body of the steel; mechanical clamping structure and two, one is the blade clamp blade body, the other Brazed the blade is a good body on the knife body. Carbide tools are generally made of welded structure or mechanical clamping structure; porcelain knives are used mechanical clamping structure.

In the choice of tool point of view, you need to consider the impact of many factors, such as workpiece materials, tool materials, processing properties (rough, finishing), etc., must be based on the specific circumstances of a reasonable choice. Generally speaking of the tool point of view refers to the manufacturing and measurement of the annotation angle in the actual work, due to the different installation positions and cutting tool movement direction of the change, the actual work of the angle and annotation differ, but usually very different The material used to make the tool must have high high temperature hardness and abrasion resistance, the necessary flexural strength, impact toughness and chemical inertness, good processability (cutting, forging and heat treatment, etc.) and are not subject to deformation.

Usually when the material hardness is high, wear resistance is also high; high bending strength, high impact toughness. However, the higher the hardness of the material, the lower the flexural strength and impact toughness. Due to its high flexural strength and impact toughness and good machinability, HSS is still the most widely used tool material, followed by cemented carbide.

Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride for cutting high-hardness hardened steel and hard cast iron; polycrystalline diamond suitable for cutting non-ferrous metals, and alloys, plastics and glass steel, etc .; carbon tool steel and alloy tool steel now only For files, teeth and taps and other tools.

Carbide indexable inserts are now coated with titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum oxide hard layers or composite hard layers by chemical vapor deposition. The growing physical vapor deposition method can be applied not only to cemented carbide tools but also to high speed steel tools such as drill bits, hobs, taps, and milling cutters. Hard coatings act as barriers to chemical diffusion and heat conduction, slowing the tool wear during cutting and increasing the life of the coated blade by about 1 to 3 times compared to uncoated

Due to high temperature, high pressure, high speed, and working in corrosive fluid medium parts, the application of more and more difficult to process materials, cutting the level of automation and the processing accuracy of the higher and higher. In order to adapt to this situation, the development direction of the tool will be the development and application of new tool materials; the further development of the tool vapor deposition coating technology, the deposition of a higher hardness coating on a high toughness and high strength substrate to better solve Tool material hardness and strength of the contradiction between; further development of the structure of indexable knives; improve tool manufacturing accuracy, reduce product quality differences, and the use of tools to achieve the best.

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